There are multiple options for the material of capacitors. There are also different purposes for each material. The materials range from ceramic to Teflon. Although the materials are all different from each other they all have one thing in common. All of the materials are non-conductive.
Depending on the capacitor some are better for high frequency. Meanwhile, others are better suited for higher voltages. There are capacitors in the smallest electronics like calculators. Also, there are capacitors in large electronics like the NASA space shuttle.
Capacitors work like batteries in a circuit. Once a capacitor is charged it will have the same voltage as the battery that initially charged it. However, there is a difference between a capacitor and a battery. A capacitor can discharge its energy in a very short amount of time. Whereas a battery takes a longer amount of time to discharge its energy. Farads or even micro-farads are the units of the amount of energy a capacitor will store.
Here is an excellent video about capacitors from our friends at Techquickie:
Integrated Circuits (ICs)
An IC can do the job of many different components. Due to its small size, it is surprising the amount of technology that it holds. The idea behind an IC is to take a complicated circuit with all of its components and connections and make it very small. Therefore, creating a single component that is small enough to fit into smaller electronics.
There is a large process when creating such a small part that contains so many smaller components. An integrated circuit, commonly referred to as an IC, is a microscopic array of electronic circuits and components. These circuits and components have been diffused or implanted onto the surface of a single crystal, or chip, of semiconducting material such as silicon.
Due to its small size, there can be a lot of challenges with an IC. The main issue when working with such small circuitry is it is very easy for small dust particles to impair an ICs function. Therefore, workers take extra precautions when assembling an IC. Some of these precautions include clean labs. These clean labs have special filters for the air to decrease the dust that could damage the IC. Also, anyone working on these components has to wear special protective clothing and enter the labs through airlocks.
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